The YYZ code for Toronto Pearson airport originates in the two-digit YZ location identifier assigned to Malton Airport, the airfield’s original name, in the late 1930s and early 40s.
Most airfields and weather stations in the United States, Canada and Alaska, had unique two-letter identities, which would be emitted by beacons as a Morse code radio signal for aeronautical navigation and reporting of weather conditions. Using two letters limited the number of available identifiers to 676 possible unique combinations, and as many US stations were using letters that bore some relation to their location, the range of unique location-related letter combinations available for Canadian airfields was limited. Canada, therefore, tended to use combinations that started with letters towards the end of the alphabet, with Q, X, and Y being commonly used.
After World War II, IATA mandated the use of three-letter airport codes. Rather than assign completely new codes, in most cases, Canada simply added the Y prefix to existing two-letter codes, hence the continued use today of YYZ as the identifier for Toronto Pearson International Airport.
The former summer resort village of Minnewanka Landing lies beneath the waters of Lake Minnewanka, near Banff, Alberta.
Minnewanka Landing grew around the Beach House log hotel established on the shores of the original Lake Minnewanka in 1886. The village was a popular summer destination, and by 1912 the resort was laid out along four avenues and three streets, with restaurants, hotels, and two cruise boats, Lady of the Lake and Daughter of the Peaks, offering lake tours to visitors.
A small log dam was constructed in 1895 to improve the shoreline for boating, followed by a larger dam in Devil’s Canyon in 1912 to create water storage for a downstream hydro-electric plant, increasing the lake level by 16 feet and claiming part of the village. During World War II, the needs of a growing and energy-hungry city of Calgary were prioritised over national park protections, and a larger dam built in 1941 increased the water level by a further 65 feet, submerging the entire village and the 1912 dam. The remnants of Minnewanka Landing’s structures are well preserved in the icy cold waters, making it a popular scuba diving location.
The Banff Visitor Centre is located next to St Paul’s Presbyterian Church on Banff Avenue in downtown Banff, in a stone and half-timbered black and white heritage building that was once the Banff School Auditorium.
Operated by Parks Canada, the visitor information centre includes the Banff Lake Louise Tourism office, and is open until 5 pm daily.
The centre offers visitor maps, attraction brochures, Park Passes and activity permits, safety advice, backcountry reservations, weather, trail, avalanche and road condition reports, and features interpretive exhibits and events throughout the year.
The Upper Hot Springs pool in Banff, Alberta, is supplied entirely with natural mineral water from the hot spring for most of the season, although water flow naturally decreases later in the year and there may be times in late fall and winter when the pool is topped up with heated municipal water.
The Banff Upper Hot Springs website provides regular updates on the flow status of natural mineral water into the pool, along with water temperature, and signs on site display the same information.
The water temperature of the outdoor pool normally ranges between 37 and 40 degrees Celsius (or 98 and 104 degrees Fahrenheit), and the Hot Springs closes whenever the water temperature falls below 37 degrees Celsius. Such unplanned closures are infrequent and typically only occur when ambient temperatures are very cold.
There is a path going around the whole of False Creek which is part of the longer Vancouver Seaside Greenway, an uninterrupted waterfront pathway running from the Vancouver Convention Centre, along the Stanley Park Seawall to English Bay, and then around False Creek past Granville Island to Kitsilano Beach.
The entire False Creek section is approximately 8.5 km (or 5.3 miles) long and has many access points. A good starting point in downtown Vancouver is Sunset Beach Park near Burrard Bridge. From there, the path goes under Burrard Bridge, Granville Bridge and Cambie Bridge, past Science World and the Olympic Village and onwards to Granville Island and Kitsilano Beach Park. Returning to downtown Vancouver over Burrard Bridge is an option, or take one of the frequent ferry boats from Granville Island or Vanier Park Maritime Museum back to Sunset Beach.
The path is divided down the centre, with walkers and joggers required to keep on the side closest to the water, and cyclists and inline skaters on the other side.